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Summary 1. The focus dr oz burly fat burner on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as they are also the most culturally productive periods and in which the Irish identity was shaped and represented.

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They will understand historical processes and sources of conflict and will become familiar with dates, places and personalities that are significant in the history of the island. The Early Stages Ireland had an ancient civilisation dating back from the Mesolithic Age over nine thousand years ago.

It underwent continuous transformations as people from Europe moved westward, but it was never invaded by the Romans or by Germanic tribes like most European territories.

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This enabled the Gaelic civilisation, Christianised in the fifth century, to flourish in the early Middle Ages. Between the ninth and the twelfth centuries, at a time when there was hardly any coherent manifestation of local cultures in the territories of the present-day Western European countries, Irish monks travelled throughout Europe spreading Christianity and the fruit of the Irish civilisation.

The illuminated manuscript of the Book of Kells, today exhibited at the museum of Trinity College, Dublin, stands proof of the advanced artistic skills and tastes of the Irish in the ninth century. The Book of Kells is a stunningly beautiful manuscript containing the Four Gospels.

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The Gospels are written in Latin, which was the language of the religious sermons. The Book of Kells was written on vellum calfskinwhich was time-consuming to prepare properly but made for an excellent, smooth writing surface. As many as ten different colors were used in the illuminations, some of them rare and expensive dyes that had to be imported from the continent.

The workmanship is so fine that some of the details can only be clearly seen with a magnifying glass.

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The great number of drawings can be accounted for by the fact that the book was exhibited in church during the Sunday sermon, which was in Latin, so that the illiterate people could look at the images representing the respective Gospel and understand the story.

The Book of Kells was probably produced in a monastery on the Isle of Iona, Scotland, in the early 8th century. After a Viking raid the book was moved to Kells, Ireland, sometime in the 9th century.

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It was stolen in the 11th century, at which time its cover was torn off and it was thrown into a ditch. The cover, which most likely included gold and gems, has never been found, and the book suffered some water damage; but otherwise it is extraordinarily well-preserved. The Conflict and the Invasions From the East Just like the British territories, Ireland attracted Viking raids from the end of the eighth century, and then Norman invaders, who settled especially in the East and the fertile lowlands of the South.

Thus the North, called Ulster, remained the least affected province and continued to keep its Celtic heritage.

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Being an independent territory until the sixteenth century, it was soon perceived as a threat by the developing power of England. The final stages of this conquest were terrible: by burning corn and seizing cattle the English commanders caused mass starvation in Ulster and left bitter memories among the survivors. This was just the beginning of the continuous anomalous state of the Irish people under the British rule, which was to last until the beginning of the 20th century.

The incoming British who took over the lands never felt secure in Ireland and they could never manage their estates without Irish help. On the other hand the dispossessed Irish resented the intrusion of settlers with an alien language, alien customs, and alien religion.

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This led to political instability and rebellions, which were suppressed in blood by the British troops, the most terrible example being the repression led by Oliver Cromwell. It remained in the folk memory as one of the bloodiest episodes in the Irish history.

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Later in the same 17the century, during the Catholic King James II other two battles were added to the black pages of history, namely the battle of Boyne in and the one at Aughrim inwhen seven thousand Irishmen were killed in one afternoon. Even the contemporary national Irish poet Seamus Heaney dedicated a long poem to the Battle of Boyne and its devastating effects on the Irish psyche.

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Starting with the 18th century, Ireland benefited from the effects of the Industrial Revolution and developed some local industries, especially linen, as well as trade. The flourishing of navigation also contributed to the development of ports such as Belfast and Newry.

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As the sectarian conflicts started to aggravate, the Crown intensified its armed interventions, while alternating military suppression with political actions, which culminated with the bribing of the weak Irish Parliament and its dissolution in This was the moment when the total Union with Britain started. Example 1.

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In the eighteenth century, Dublin was the second — largest city in the British Empire. For the same reason the domestic linen industry in mid — Ulster and west Cork, and the domestic woollen industry throughout the rest of Ireland, suffered catastrophic decline. A rapidly rising population depended ever more heavily on what the overworked soil could produce. The potato, the staple food of about half the inhabitants, was destroyed by blight in the s; about a million people died from hunger and famine fever, and about million people emigrated.

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There was a flight from the land, and those without the resources to go abroad often ended up in Belfast, which became the fastest — growing urban centre in the Dr oz burly fat burner Kingdom. At first growth depended on cotton produced by steam and water — powered machines.

Finding it difficult to compete with Manchester, the mill owners transferred to the power production of linen yarn in the s and s and the power weaving of cloth in the s and s.

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During the American Civil War when supplies of cotton wool were closed off Belfast became the world centre of the linen industry. Belfast became a city in it was then the largest in Irelandand by it was one of the great cities of the Empire, with the biggest shipyard in the world launching the largest ships in the world, the biggest linen mill, dr oz burly fat burner biggest tobacco factory, the biggest tea machinery works, the biggest ropeworks, the biggest aerated waters factory, and the biggest gasometer in the world…but it was a city with severe problems.

After reading the fragment above, answer the following questions: What were, according to Bardon, the alternatives for the poor people of Ireland in the nineteenth century? What was the greatest disaster for the Irish in this century?